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Between The Idea And Work – Course Of Musical Data Processing

Between The Idea And Work – Course Of Musical Data Processing

If musical data processing is essential us so much today, it is that it gradually created tools which are radically modifying the manner of thinking the music. However, its history is short. It merges with the development of numerical technologies: computers, initially, accompanied by creation by the languages symbolic intended for the programming, then with a whole troop of inventions in numerical technology. Enough early in its history, data processing will be shown sufficiently ripe to accommodate concerns of all kinds, energy of accountancy to scientific research, while passing naturally by what interests us, artistic creation.

And it is undoubtedly there that it is necessary to distinguish what arises from data processing itself, and what belongs rather to the broader world of numerical technology. The music amply draws from these two fields its new resources. However, since the field of the sound is converted today into audio numerical, the distinction is essential. Musical data processing is born from the meeting of the musical concerns and the environment resulting from numerical technologies and the specificity of the computer, on the one hand, and of the scientific fields which clarify its research topics. If the musical composition appears there in good place, practically all the other activities of the music are found there. And musical research partly covers the ground cleared by data processing, acoustics, the treatment of the signal, even cognitive psychology: thus musical data processing is at the center of several musical, scientific and technical fields.

But it is the recourse to the specific contributions of the data processing which characterizes its step. New conceptual tools are unceasingly provided by the artificial intelligence, which are concretized by languages such as Lisp or Prolog. They are put at once at the musicologist assistance or abstracting service to the composition. Research in systems real time and on the interfaces interactive makes it possible to conceive new connections between the instrumentalist and the electronic universe.

Great stages of musical data processing

With the origin of musical data processing, one finds two types of activities, independent one of the other. If these activities prudent today, it is in another manner that the original vision which caused their birth could enable to foresee. These two types of activities are: the musical composition, and production of the sound. In both cases, the manufacture of the desired result is ensured by the computer. These two types of activities are appreciably contemporary. The first serious tests of musical composition per computer go back to 1956: it is on this date that Lejaren Hiller calculated a partition using rules encodes in the form of algorithms on the computer Illiac I of the university of Illinois. It is about Illiac Suite for String Quartet, whose three movements are carried out this year by the string quartet WQXR. In a famous structure, published in 1959 and which supports the title of “Experimental Music-Composition with year Electronic Computer”, Lejaren Hiller explains in detail the procedures that it applied to the Illiac computer in order to produce the partition of his string quartet.

To locate this period, it is as into 1956 as John McCarthy forged the term of artificial intelligence. One year later, max Mathews, researcher at the laboratories of the Bell Telephone, in the New Jersey, a first numerical programmer of synthesis of the sound for the computer IBM 704 writes. Known today under the name of Music I, it is the first of a great family of acoustic compilers; a psychologist, Newman Guttman, generates first a one 15 seconds duration study, In the Silver Scale. It is as into 1957 as the four movements of the Continuation Illiac for String Quartet of Lejaren Hiller are published; the same year is born the primitive version from the famous language of FORTRAN program (FORmula TRANslator). Let us note that during the creation of the work of Hiller by the string quartet WQXR, it is max Mathews which organized a recording, which gave place, thereafter, with the publication of this recording in a disc carried out in 1960 by the Bell Laboratories, and entitled Music from Mathematics: even if the ways traced by these two inventors are independent, it is not known as that they did not cross…

From these two almost contemporary events, the development will continue, gradually, in the traced directions: the composition and production of the sound. We will see low the courses of them. But a third way is not long in appearing: it is born from the same observation that had made Hiller: the computer is above all, at that time, a formidable calculating machine. Moreover, the English term of selected computer indicated, before the appearance of these machines, the employees charged to operate calculations. But at the same time, with a bit of fear, one spoke readily at the time of electronic brains. An artist could not approach the computer not without a certain emotion, which explains without any doubt the attraction sometimes terrifying that data processing will exert on the artists of the following decades. But they are two scientists who are at the origin of these experiments: Hiller practiced chemistry, while Mathews was an already famous researcher. It is undoubtedly what explains remarkable methodologies that they reflect in place, each one on their side, and with completely independent aims.

With the Bell laboratories, max Mathews, on his side, written in 1957 a first numerical programmed of synthesis of the sound for the computer IBM 704, equipped with 4096 words of memory. Known today under the name of Music I, it is the first of a great family. The program Music III (1960) introduced the concept of instrument modular. The model imagined by max Mathews is inspired more than one equipment of laboratory or an electronic studio of music that by an acoustic stringed-instrument trade. The program offers a range of independent modules (Unit Generators), in charge each one of an elementary function: oscillator with form of programmable wave, adder of signals, multiplier, generator of envelopes and random signals, etc… The musician builds a “instrument” by connecting a selection of modules between them. The signals produced by the oscillators or the generators are led towards other modules there to be modified or mixed. Several instruments can be joined together within a “orchestra”, each instrument having its own identity. Contrary to what occurs in the material universe, it there not of limit to the number of modules usable simultaneously, except perhaps the memory of the computer. The result of the placement of the instrument is the progressive calculation of the sound in the form of a sequence of numbers which, put end to end, represent a complex sound wave. These numbers are called “samples”. Today, the number of samples representing one second of its was established to 44 100 per channel for the applications general public, and to 48 000 for the professional field.

Because of relative slowness of the machines and design weight to be carried out, time put to generate the sound wave is quite higher than the duration of the sounds; the operation of these programs is known as “in differed time”. With the origin, the sound waves calculated in numerical form were stored on a numerical tape progressively proceeding end of an arithmetic unit of samples. This mode of production of the sound is called “direct synthesis”. Thus creates for itself a “file of sound”; once completed, the musician calls upon a second program, charged reading the file of sound in real time and with sending the samples towards a digital-to-analog converter, which is connected to an amplifier and loudspeakers.

To activate the orchestra, the musician must write a “partition”, in which all the parameters claimed by the modules of the instrument are specified. This partition is presented in the form of a list of numbers or telegraphy codes, each “note” or a each event being the subject of a particular list. These lists are ordered in time.

But to specify each parameter is a difficult task, more especially as the musicians are not trained to give values measured to sound dimensions which they handle. To fight against this obstacle, of the languages of assistance to the writing of partitions were conceived; most known is the Score program of Leland Smith (1972). Score is not an automatic program of composition: it makes it possible to specify the parameters using terms resulting from the musical practice (heights, nuances, durations), automatically to calculate changes of tempo or nuances, and even to supplement sections with notes corresponding to a trajectory given by the type-setter. The model instrument-partition was firmly established with the arrival of Music IV (1962). This program were born from many alternatives, of which some exist indeed still today. Among these misadventures, let us quote Music 4BF (1966-67), there is nowadays a version for Macintosh (Music 4C, 1989), and especially Music 360 of Barry Vercoe (1968); this descendant of Music IV has as a characteristic to be presented in the form of a true programming language, which undoubtedly explains why it became today with C-Music the acoustic compiler more used. It was initially adapted to minicomputer PDP-11 from DIGITAL in 1973, then, entirely rewritten in language C in 1985, it took the name of C-Sound, and was quickly adapted to all kinds of data-processing platforms, including the micro-computers like Atari, Macintosh and IBM. In 1969 Music V appears, a program which is conceived to facilitate the musical programming of the instruments and the partitions; nowadays, Music V is still largely employed, generally in the form of the adaptation that in made Richard Moore, C-Music (1980).

The computer was also an unquestionable success in a strongly speculative field, the musicologists analysis. With the eyes of the public interested at the beginning of the Sixties, data processing, still rather mysterious and inaccessible, showed the possibility for strange musical work; in composition, in musicology and finally, limited to the laboratories Bell, production of sound. A great musical upheaval of this decade was to come from the world of electronics, with the appearance into 1964 of the synthesizers modular, known as “analogical” since they do not contain numerical electronics. Conceived independently by Paolo Ketoff (Rome), Robert Moog and Donald Buchla (the United States), the synthesizers bring the response to the technological aspirations of many musicians, especially after the popular success of the disc Switched one Bach of Walter Carlos who truly made know these instruments near a large audience. During this time, the program of Mathews knows adaptations on other sites, such as the universities of New York, Princeton or Stanford.

Another application of the computer appears with the piloting of analogical instruments. The machine generates signals with slow variation which modify the adjustments of devices of studio: frequency of oscillators, profit of amplifiers, cut-off frequencies of filters. The first example of this system which one names “hybrid synthesis” was established in 1970 in Elektron Musik Studio of Stockholm, foundation independent since 1969, financed by the Royal Academy of Music, and placed under the direction of Knut Wiggen. A computer PDP 15/40 controlled twenty-four generators of frequency there, a generator of white vibration, two third filters of octave, modulators: out of ring, of amplitude and reverberations. The originality of the system of Stockholm lay in an extremely ergonomic operator console, with which the type-setter could specify the parameters of synthesis by sweeping a panel of figures using a metal brochette. Another studio is to be quoted: that of Peter Zinovieff in London (1969), placed under the control of a minicomputer DIGITAL PDP 8 for which Peter Grogono wrote the language of Musys piloting.

Another remarkable realization is the system Groove (Generated Realtime Operations One Equipment Voltage-controlled, Ca 1969) conceived at the Bell laboratories by max Mathews and Richard Moore. Groove is an instrument intended for the control of parameters of interpretation of a device of synthesis. In this direction, it places the musician more close to the position of a leader that to a type-setter or an instrumentalist, although one can consider that the electronic type-setter of music must often place himself in position of chief, by directly interpreting the music which is made up.

It is the middle of the Seventies which marks the transition towards an inexorable widening from now on from the life of musical data processing, with the appearance of the microprocessor. A data-processing stringed-instrument trade will become gradually possible with the design of complete computers on an integrated circuit: microprocessors. It will also be necessary that the interface with the user improves, and that the punch cards by a more interactive mode of inputs are replaced: it will be the keyboard and the cathode ray tube which will carry it.

The principle of the hybrid synthesis continued to be applied throughout the Seventies, before being supplanted definitively by the numerical synthesizers at the dawn of the Eighties. The American company Intel markets since 1971 the first microprocessor, the circuit 4004, which allow the design of genuine miniature computers, the microcomputers: Intellec 8 (conceived starting from microprocessor 8008 of 1972), Apple I, Altair (1975), gathered soon under the name of micro-computers.

The experiment musical of the Art Group and Data processing of Vincennes (GAIV) illustrate this time of transition well. This team, founded to the university of Paris 8 by Patrick Greussay and a team of artists and architects, known for the publication of a bulletin diffusing the research tasks in most recent art and data processing, entrusted to the type-setter Giuseppe Englert the musical coordination of her activities. It is Intellec 8, microcomputer with words of eight bits, ordered by a paper tape and a keyboard, which was used with the compositionally activities and as research on musical formalization; English synthesizers EMS-VCS3 were controlled by the microcomputer, via digital-to-analog converters charged to provide power of order in exchange of the binary data calculated by interactive programs.

The second effect of the arrival of the microcomputer was the design of the “mixed synthesis”, synthesizers numerical, genuine computers adapted to the calculation of the sound wave in real times, placed under the control of a computer. From second half of the Seventies appear several achievements of this type; we will retain work of James Beauchamp, Jean-François Allouis, William Buxton, inter alia, like those of Peter Samson (synthesizer of Systems Concept, conceived for the research center — CCRMA — university of Stanford), Synclavier de New England DIGITAL Corporation, conceived by Syd Alonso and Cameron Jones under the impulse of the type-setter Jon Appleton, design, under the impulse of Luciano Berio, of a bench of oscillators in Naples by Giuseppe di Giugno, who continued his work in Ircam (series 4A, 4B, 4C and 4X) under the direction of Pierre Boulez; more recently, Fly 30 of the Center of recherché musical of Rome. Let us note that with the 4X of Ircam (1980), the term of synthesizer disappears, replaced by that of numerical processor of signal, which undoubtedly moves the accent on the general information of the machine.

The industry of the electronic instrument does not take a long time to adapt to these new developments. The first stage consisted in introducing microprocessors inside analogical synthesizers (Prophet synthesizers of the firm Sequential Circuits), charged to control the modules ordered in tension; it is still of the “hybrid synthesis”. The second stage follows soon: it consists in designing genuine entirely numerical musical instruments. It is the noticed arrival of Synclavier II, then of Fairlight.

The industrial field is today initially made up by the market of the synthesizers and the processors of the sound, and by the software which makes it possible to exploit them. Today, all the synthesizers are numerical, and necessarily meet the Midi standard. The field of the synthesizers is double: on the one hand apparatuses, often provided with a keyboard, which propose a choice of preprogrammed sounds which one can vary certain parameters by an elementary process of programming; in addition, the machines which are intended to reproduce sounds beforehand recorded and memorized, or stored on mass memory: samplers, or “samplers”.

It should be noted that all these technologies become accessible to the private musician, within the framework of what is called commonly the “personal studio” (home studio).

But these machines, and a fortiori the personal studio do not function without adapted software: the sequencers control the execution of a piece directly starting from a computer, the editors of sound are intended for the treatment, the assembly and the mixing of sound sequences. Programs make it possible to write a partition, which from now on is usually employed by the musical edition. Lastly, the machines can also be placed under the control of supplementary programmes to the composition.

The most original character of the contemporary data-processing stringed-instrument trade is the “workstation”. To conceive a workstation consists in gathering programs of various nature, intended for the analysis or the synthesis of the sound, the control of the sound or the composition. These programs are integrated within data-processing a “environment” organized around a computer and of its peripherals, intended for the treatment of the sound on line. It is the case of the plug-in charts which, coupled to a software, make it possible to read “files of sound” stored on a disc, in exchange of an order, coming for example from a Midi source. This system, if new that it did not find yet a name true, is generally indicated like “hard” or “direct-to-disk” disk.

The musical representation

Since the computer, unlike the electronic music of studio, claims a specification of the data, and thus a writing, the question of the musical representation is a constant concern of the field. We will see two answers. The first illustrates a step a priori compositionnelle: that of Xenakis. The second, more general, is the Midi standard.

Iannis Xenakis innovates with the design of the UPIC (Unit Polyagogique Informatique of CEMAMu). Conceived in the middle of the Seventies, this system rises naturally from the approach of the synthesis of the sound by this type-setter: within the team which it had joined together, baptized initially Emamu (Team of Mathematics and Musical Automatic, 1966), and with the financing of the Foundation Gulbenkian, Xenakis had made build a digital-to-analog converter of high quality. The UPIC represents a complete environment of composition with, in result, the sound synthesis of the page of made up music. Become in 1971 CEMAMu (Center of Mathematics and Musical Automatic) because of the creation of a place intended to shelter its research, the team joined together around Xenakis conceives a system making it possible to the type-setter to draw on a broad table of architect of the “arcs time-height”, by choosing for each arc a temporal trajectory, a form of wave, a nuance. The music thus is initially represented in graphic form. The programs of the first UPIC are written for a minicomputer Solar 16/65, connected to two bodies of magnetic tapes to store the programs and the samples, a digital-to-analog converter, a cathode ray tube making it possible to post the forms of waves, but also to draw these waves using a graphic pencil. To hear the page which it has just drawn, the type-setter must wait until the computer finished to calculate all the samples; the generation of the sound is ensured by a digital-to-analog converter of high quality. More recently, the UPIC was redrawn for microcomputer, and functions without delay.

To represent the sound in the form of a modifiable image, it is the goal of the Phonograms program, designed at the university Paris 8 per Vincent Lesbros. With the manner of a sonograms, the program posts the spectral analysis like a drawing, which can be modified; the new representation can then be synthesized, either by Midi, or in the shape of a file of sound, or even transformed into Midi file.

The reproach often today is heard that the generation of young musicians who approach technology through the environment created around the Midi standard are not a satisfactory aware of not passed of musical data processing and its problems. But is to forget that, in a direction, the birth of the Midi standard was done without true filiation with the preceding stages of the field which one will name musical data processing. The phenomenon which represents Midi is not at all a misadventure of this field.

The Midi standard was developed in 1983 to allow the piloting of several synthesizers starting from one only keyboard; the messages are transmitted in numerical format, according to a well defined protocol. With the origin, Midi is thus well based on instrumental gesturer control: it is a method to represent not the sound, but the gesture of the musician who plays of a Midi instrument. In 1983 leaves the first synthesizer to have an interface Midi, Prophet 600 of Sequential Circuits. What had not been defined, on the other hand, it is the success which this standard was going quickly to gain, which today is used to inter-connect all the machines of a studio of electronic music, and even the sets of lights of a scene.

Musical research

The work undertaken since 1956 by Lejaren Hiller for the composition of Illiac Suite for String Quartet marks at the same time the true birth of musical data processing and the anchoring of this field in the research, applied in this case to the automatic composition. The computer appeared then as a machine making it possible to treat the complex continuations of operations which characterize the composition of ambitious musical works. This way was going to be reinforced since 1958 by the French type-setter Pierre Barbaud, who melts in Paris the Algorithmic Group in connection with the company Bull-General Electric and begins his research of automatic composition; as of the following year, the first algorithmic work of Barbaud was made up:

Unforeseeable innovations (Algorithm 1), with the collaboration of Pierre Blanchard. The program Musicomp de Lejaren Hiller and Robert Baker, of the same time, conceived for the Illiac computer after the composition of the Illiac Continuation, making university of Illinois one of the centers of musical data processing at that time. And when in 1962, Iannis Xenakis creates ST/10, 080262, work written thanks to the stochastic program ST developed since 1958 on a computer IBM 7090, the composition using the computer enters its golden age. In the Netherlands, Gottfried Michael Koenig writes in 1964 the program of composition Project I (1964), followed soon of Project II (1970). The composition computer-assisted rests on mathematics and the stochastic one, drawing largely from the resources of the processes of Markov (Hiller, Barbaud, Xenakis, Chadabe, Manoury).

With the arrival of the micro-computers a new tendency develops: assistance with the composition, then computer-aided design of composition (CAD). The program demiurge, able to generate a whole composition the model of an environment of data-processing tools charged succeeds to deal with precise musical problems. Let us quote among the principal ones: HMSL (Hierarchical Music Language Specification, 1985) with Mills College in California, Forms, created by Xavier Rodet, Draft and Patchwork, developed in Ircam under the impulse of Jean-baptiste Barrier, Experiment in Musical Intelligence of David Cope, at the university of Santa Cruz in California. These programs are open: they dialogue with the type-setter in an interactive way, and are connected to the universe of the Midi devices. Except for M and Jam Factory of Joel Chadabe and David Zicarelli, they are structured by the use of languages nonnumerical, resulting from the field of the artificial intelligence, such as Forth, and especially Lisp, which explains why they rest not on mathematics, as it was the case for the first generation of composition computer-assisted, but on the formal languages and the generative grammars.

Real time: computer and instrumental universe

The Eighties see developing the use of the computer in situation in concert; thanks to the arrival of the numerical synthesizers in real time, or, more generally, numerical processors of sound, and languages of control real time, the conditions are ripe to revisit this old surface of the music of the XXe century: electronic music on line (live electronic music). In the majority of the cases, it is initially a question of imagining a means of connecting the computer and its computing power to devices of synthesis or treatment of sound, with, if, possible, the interaction of musicians. Répons (1981), of Pierre Swell, by the integration of the procedures of treatment the writing itself, showed in what the computer became an instrument, integrated perfectly into the orchestra. Following this work work appears on the follow-up, by the computer, of the play of the instrumentalist, operation known under the name of “follow-up of partition”. Let us quote the contributions of Roger Dannenberg in the automatic accompaniment and the languages offering the conditions of the communication computer-instrument, those of max Mathews, initially with the Groove system, then more recently with its work on “Radio operator Drum” and the simulation of the rod of the chief orchestrates itself, Miller Puckette with the Max. program.

This is why one was in addition interested to give to instruments of orchestra this capacity, by providing them with sensors, allowing the computer to follow the execution (flute, vibraphone, etc…). All musical industry is concerned with this tendency, although the process to be used is not decided yet: it will be electromechanical (material sensors placed at strategic places of the instrument, conducting membranes, etc…), or will it be necessary to have recourse to the analysis for stolen of the sounds themselves to know of it the height, the spectral structure and the mode of play?

The community organizes itself

The ripening of musical data processing was accompanied by an assumption of responsibility by the community by the musicians and researchers by themselves. Gradually, the conscience of membership of a field is done day. The international congresses appear, followed later local conferences. The communications which are marked there are published in collections available for all the community. These meetings also give place to the presentation in concerts, which tends more strongly to weld between them the conscience of a new field, with the scientific and artistic components. It is the beginning of the “International Computer Music Conferences” (ICMC). In 1978 is born an organization intended to facilitate the communication and to help the behavior of the congresses, the “Computer Music Association”, which becomes in 1991 “International Computer Music Association” (ICMA). The organizers seek to hold the congress one year in North America, and the following year on another continent. These congresses see the ICMA taking a role growing in the assistance brought to the local organizers, like in the diffusion of the publications resulting from these meetings, going until placing from the orders of works which will be carried out during ICMC (ICMA Commission Awards, 1991).

Another vehicle which welds the conscience of membership of a common field is the Computer Music Journal. Appeared in California in 1977, it is taken again by MIT Press starting from volume 4 (1980). The newspaper is essential like the reference as regards scientific publications of the field. Association ICMA publishes a bulletin, Array, which became a body very appreciated of information and discussion on the current topics of musical data processing. The review Interface Dutchwoman, which becomes since 1994 Newspaper of New Music Research, regularly publishes articles on musical data processing. Canada, Musicworks, guided by Gayle Young, ensures information on a broad range of concerns of the new musics. In France, publications of Ircam, InHarmonique, then the books of Ircam open their columns with the aesthetic, theoretical and critical considerations which accompany sudden appearance by new technologies in arts. In 1991 the Leonardo newspaper, published by the international association for arts, science and technology, founded in 1968 by Frank Malina, lance, under the direction of Roger Malina, Leonardo Music Journal, who bring a full vision of the musical practice related to new technologies, thanks also to the publication, with each number, of a compact disk. More theoretical, the review [http://www.linereview.com] Languages of Design, under the direction of Raymond Lauzzana, is interested in formalization in the artistic procedures, and grants a broad place to musical data processing. With these traditional supports of information the direct communication between musicians and researchers by the means of the data-processing networks is added, allowing the instantaneous email. Lastly, the need to increase the speed of communication gave birth to the electronic newspapers, diffused by the networks such as Internet; released from the structure of manufacture, impression and routing, they allow the same type of access to information as the data banks which, they also, multiply in musical data processing.

St Bridget and the Jewels in Her Crown

St Bridget and the Jewels in Her Crown

New Age enthusiasts speak of the power of the mineral kingdom. The “energy” in crystals can help to amplify a person’s life force.

Quartz crystals have a peizo – electric quality. This means that when they come in contact with another “electrical” component, (like a radio wave in a crystal radio) it creates a spark of electricity. When you place or wear a crystal on your body, the life force or “chi” moves.

The mineral kingdom is alive like all kingdoms of earth. The hardest part of the material plane is the stones and our bones. Our bones hold the memory of our past lives. The densest part of our physical bodies reconfigure and help to create our reincarnated new forms. Cases of reincarnated souls often resemble who they were in the past. Currently the woman claiming to be Marilyn Monroe does look like her. David Wilcock (The Reincarnation of Edgar Cayce?) walked into the headquarters of ARE in Virginia Beach. The people there were astounded to see that he looked like a young Edgar Cayce. The rocks, stones and our bones are the record keepers of earth.

The current disbelief in common culture that the mineral kingdom is alive can be challenged by the vision of St. Agnes in the 1300’s. She told St. Bridget of the seven jewels in her crown. Each one of us has a spiritual crown of jewels earned from the lessons we have learned. We also have a “breastplate” with gems of protection.

St. Agnes. “What is the crown…if not the trial of patience which is forged by sorrows and by God adorned with jewels.” The first jewel was jasper. “Jasper sharpens sight, and brings joy to the soul. It enlightens the understanding of spiritual things and purifies the soul from unsettled inclinations.”

The second stone was sapphire. “Sapphire is the color of heaven. It keeps the limbs healthy. The evil of men tries the righteous so that he desires heavenly things and keeps the limbs of the soul from becoming proud.”

The third stone was the emerald. “The emerald by nature is brittle but beautiful and green in color. It still makes the soul beautiful because it is the reward of patience.”

The fourth stone is the pearl. “It is white and beautiful and allays the torment of the heart, so the sorrows of love lead God into the soul and restrain the passions of anger and impatience.”

The fifth stone is topaz. “Topaz is the color of gold and preserves chastity and beauty.”

The sixth stone is a diamond. “It was placed in thy crown by him who caused thee bodily hurt, which thou patiently suffered for thou didst not wish to bring shame upon him who injured thee. As the diamond cannot be crushed by a hammer, it pleases God that man for his sake ignores injuries to his body and thinks of what God has done for mankind.”

The seventh stone is a carbuncle. “He who is patient in the loss of something dearly beloved awakens God to love and shines and enchants in the eyes of the Saints.”

I had a physic reading many years ago. The reader said to me. “You have many jewels in your crown but they are cloudy.” A few years later in a dream my Grandmother took me to a very old little house. She brought me into a bedroom which had a beautiful hand carved dark wooden headboard. She started to dig out a heart shaped ruby and a shinning diamond from the headboard. “You will need these.” she told me.

The stones and precious gems all bring us a medicine. Not only are they beautiful to the eye but come as a gift to remind us of the potential we all have in becoming a perfect jewel in the thousand petaled lotus.

All quotes are by St.Agnes from “Saint Bridget of Sweden” by Aron Andersson.

©2009 Merry C. Battles

Merry C. Battles has worked in the healing arts since 1977. She has practiced the art of massage, Jin Shin Jyutsu (an ancient form of Japanese Acupressure), CranioSacral Therapy, Reiki, and foot reflexology. Merry is the author and illustrator of Christmas Meditations on the Twelve Holy Days December 26-January 6 Merry’s book is a compilation of her 26 year meditation journey with the twelve holy days. Her book can be used all year as we travel through each sign of the Zodiac.

Merry has been a student of the ancient mysteries for as many years. Her greatest joy in life, along with her grandchildren, is to learn about the spiritual. This is reflected in all of her work.

http://merrybattles.com/http://walkingthespiritualpath.com/

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Enhancing Customer Experience – Background Music (BGM)

Enhancing Customer Experience – Background Music (BGM)

In addition to the ambience created by the physical environment of the restaurant, music provides a conducive surrounding for the guests to engage themselves with the music being played, as well as with each other. The waiting time of a diner is perceived to be shorter when music is played in the background. This in turn presents a positive outlook of the restaurant which in turn improves sales. Appropriately selected background music played at the right volume combined with a pleasant atmosphere and a clean environment can turn a stingy cranky customer into a big spender within minutes! The genre of music to be played greatly depends on the nature of the restaurant and the type of people expected, or wanted, during that time of the day.

Now that we are aware that restaurants can benefit, what about retail outlets? A customer queuing at a billing counter in a shop playing music has a different behavioural pattern as compared to a customer queuing in a shop without music. The customers tend to think that they have waited only for a shorter period if the kind of music played is according to their liking. Moreover, they tend to stay longer in the shop and spend more time looking at different products which they might not have bothered in the absence of good background music.

These days various cost-effective music amplifiers are available to the astute business owner wanting an energy-efficient solution to play background music in restaurants, malls, classrooms, factories etc. All you need is a smartphone, mp3 music player or an USB stick that contains the music files to be played. With its light weight, small size and easy installation, a mini amplifier is the perfect way to conceal the equipment from the eyes of customers and install in an area where it is easy to operate and maintain.

In conclusion, every shop owner or manager should at least consider installation of a system that can provide background music. Of course, its not the magic recipe for making a shop turn over more money but in a competitive market a competitive advantage can be hard to come by. Background music might just be that competitive advantage. Needless to say, one should select the music to be played carefully. Moreover, volume levels need to just right, not too loud, not too minute. Get this wrong and your potential customers might not even make it into your shop and instead turn around and make a beeline for your competitors premises.

Homony is a leading manufacturer of commercial audio equipment and PA audio systems. Homony commercial audio systems represent the pinnacle of innovation, inspiring design and advanced technology.

Our product range includes Voice Alarm Systems, Audio Matrix Systems, All in one BGM & Public Address Systems, Management Amplifiers, Integrated Amplifiers, Pre Amplifiers, Power Amplifiers, Ceiling speakers and other commercial audio and PA audio systems.

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Clear Quartz Crystals Resonate With and Amplify All Energy Frequencies

Clear Quartz Crystals Resonate With and Amplify All Energy Frequencies

Clear Quartz crystals are six-sided representing six of the seven major Chakras or energy centers. The point or terminated end represents the Crown Chakra. Clear Quartz points amplify the energy signature or vibrational frequency of all other crystals and gemstones. While Clear Quartz crystals resonate with all Chakra’s, it is more closely in-tune with the Crown Chakra and Third Eye Chakras. The color range of Clear Quartz crystals is very clear to milky white. Clear Quartz points reflect pure white light of Divine Source Energy. If we are open to all Clear Quartz crystals offer, the radiance of pure white light will flow in, around and through us, instilling a sense of peaceful contentment. Clear Quartz crystal clusters are found in clusters, single points, double terminated points and wands in a very wide range of sizes and color variations.

Large clusters of Quartz Crystals may be used to cleanse, re-charge and balance smaller crystals and gemstones. It is essential to cleanse and re-charge all your crystals and gemstones especially those when used for meditation, focusing intentions, and healing work. Rinse Quartz clusters in clear water and place them in the Sun or Moon light. For additional information on cleansing and re-charging crystals and gemstones, please refer to “Crystals and Gemstones an Introduction.”

The frequency vibration of Quartz Crystals is pure Divine White Light, enhancing our natural capacity to give and receive from the heart. Quartz clusters have the ability to activate and store energy, balancing emotions. Clear Quartz crystals are gifted with channeling elevated levels of energy into the physical realm of matter. Clear Quartz crystals may also be utilized in more subtle energy work, fine-tuning your innate connection with ourselves and the Cosmos. In addition to being able to magnify and amplify all other crystals and gemstones, Clear Quartz has been gifted with being able to vibrate to and within any color frequency.

Quartz points are often worn as pendants. They can also be held, carried in your pocket or handbag, or placed on your bedside table. Charge a glass of water with one large or several smaller Clear Quartz crystal points; allow the glass of filtered water to absorb the wonderful energy for at least 24hours and drink the water. The sweet taste of the energy charged water is, for me, beyond description! What does it do? The energy charged water will assist you in aligning your inner subtle energy body with your physical body and Auric Energy field. It is not necessary to cleanse or re-charge the crystals, unless you choose to do so, as the crystals become re-charged when adding fresh water to the glass.

Angelic Realm Association: Archangel Taharial whose name means “Purity of God” thee Angel of purification, chastity, and Divine Guidance; assisting all who seek the white light, purifying heart, body, mind and Soul.

Healing properties: energizes, protection, clears and dispels lower negative energy, purity, clarity, balance emotions

Vibrational Frequency: clear white light; amplifies or magnifies the vibrational frequency of all other crystals and gemstones

Spiritual Properties: purity, cleansing, clear seeing, awaken inner sight.

Connect with Angels every day when you click this link http://angelladytm.com/ from Terrie Marie, the Angel Lady and Desert Rose Healing Arts! All you need to do is enter your name and email address to begin connecting with Angels! Copyright 2011 – All Rights Reserved Worldwide

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Is The Shure KSM32 Condenser Mic Worth The Price?

Is The Shure KSM32 Condenser Mic Worth The Price?

The Shure KSM32 Microphone is the microphone to beat for a lot of studio professionals working today. This microphone has a cardioid condenser which allows for a frequency response that is not found in many mics, offering natural sound. You’ll really love this microphone, as it provides a nearly-perfect sound recording.

This Class A microphone is transformer-less with preamp circuitry that gets ride of cross-over distortion in order to improve linearity throughout the whole range of frequency. Its transient response is unparalleled, thanks to the embossed 2.2 micron diaphragm found in the mic. No matter the instrument you play, or if you’re just singing, it will work well. The Shure KSM32 creates vibrant, larger than life recordings that can easily match the tone of the classic sounds.

The frequency response of this microphone is at 20Hz to 20KHz and peaks at 7KHz and 10KHz. This makes it perfect for recording vocals but the high sound pressure levels (SPL) handling makes it ideal for a number of louder sources as well. Eliminate distortion entirely with the help of the 15dB built in attenuation pad when you use this particular microphone.

Using the 3 position bass roll-off filter, this mic can eliminate the proximity effect. It has a built-in three-part pop filter that completely gets rid of the need for other kinds of pop shields. What’s more, you can reduce noise dramatically with the help of the internal shock mount. With this, breathing and pops are a thing of the past, no matter how close you are to the mic.

Shure KSM32 microphone is also furnished with cardioid polar pattern to reduce off-axis noise. That means that attenuating noises from behind the microphone won’t be captured; it will only capture sounds coming from the front, or the front left or right. This, along with its internal shock mount, means that this microphone will create just as amazing of recordings outdoors as it does indoors. And the pop filter makes it a superb tool for singers that move a lot during performance as it minimizes the pops that they are likely to make when singing while catching their breaths.

To sum things up, the Shure KSM32 microphone has extended frequency response, exceptionally uniform polar response, and outstanding low-frequency reproduction. There is a high SPL capability and not much self-noise produced by the mic. It doesn’t create any cross-over distortion, and comes with advanced common mode radio frequency interference rejection and suppression abilities.

Is the Shure KSM32 the right mic for you? Learn more about this and many other great Microphone brands at TopMicrophones.com now!

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Now is the Time for Online DVD Rental

Now is the Time for Online DVD Rental

Is it a good time to get into online DVD rental? I wonder because there are so many out there. Companies seem to come out every day with a new online DVD rental program. However, the way I look at it, this is a great time to get in the game as a consumer. The competition to be the cheapest and most efficient online DVD company is fierce right now. Competition is great for consumers as each company will push its competitors to lower prices and quicker turn around.

An online DVD rental company is one that generally charges a monthly membership free. In exchange for that fee, you as the consumer, get to choose from a live of DVD’s, the ones you want to see. You are sent one of the movie off of your list and you get to watch it at your leisure. There are no late fees, but you don’t get the next movie until you send back the one you have. This method of DVD rental is a fantastic way to go if you watch a lot of movies. This is a great alternative to traditional DVD rental if you rent often. With the online DVD rental companies, you will likely pay less, then, to see more movies than you are accustomed to seeing.

If the online DVD rental sounds like it would work for you, then think about finding a service you like now. Currently, since Wal Mart and Blockbuster joined Netflix and a number of others in the game, the prices are dropping. In addition, you may find that many of them have great introductory offers. The prices have gotten down about as low as they are going to end up, but the introductory offers are how these online DVD rental companies are trying to compete for your business. So no time is better than the present to expand your DVD library without having to make a purchase.

Be careful, though. The prices can look tempting, but the online DVD rental companies are only good if you are going to watch enough movies to make it worth your while. If you rarely rent DVD’s, then you are better off to stick with the traditional movie rental establishment with free membership and a nominal rental fee. The hype over the online DVD rentals is high, so just make sure you don’t get caught up in wasting your money on something you don’t really use.

Renting DVD’s is a great way to entertain yourself and your family on a lazy night. However, with competition heating up in the online DVD rental business, the prices there are fantastic. You may want to think about whether or not online rental is something that might fit your budget and lifestyle. Check out the different companies and start up incentives to figure out which service to use. Be careful, though, it can be very easy to get caught up in the hype of online DVD rental. However, if you don’t rent often, then you are likely better off sticking with a traditional rental store. Check your budget and how often you rent and how much you spend to figure out what the best thing for you and your family. If it is right for you, though, now is the best time to get started in online DVD rental [http://www.orlandodailytimes.com].

If you would like the latest information on renting movies online [http://www.dodvdonlinerentaltips.info], or find more of my personal articles like the one you just read, visit my movie site [http://www.dordvdonlinerentaltips.info]!

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Tips in Adding Background Music to Your Website

Tips in Adding Background Music to Your Website

Adding background music to your website is indeed cool and appealing. It does not only attract website visitors, but also gives it a personal touch which sets it apart from your competitors. However, with the advantages that it gives, many website owners also follow this trend making yours no different from the rest. Moreover, it does not also give you a hundred percent assurance that it will appeal to the taste of your visitors, especially to your target market. It does not also give you the same assurance that you’ll actually profit from it. Sure, a website that has background music is attractive, but it also has some drawbacks.

It consumes space and slows down the loading of web pages. If this is so, then it is highly probable that visitors will navigate away from your site. Take note that people nowadays don’t have time and hate to wait. Another thing is, not all visitors will like your music. In fact, some may find it irritating thus making their visit unpleasant. In other words, adding background music will give you the advantages and disadvantages at the same time. It’s not enough that you just add anything there. So to make yours both different and successful, you have to carefully weight all the pros and cons.

And if you do decide to add one to your website, make sure that the scale will tilt on your side. To do this, you must add the right kind of background music. So how are you going to add the right kind? Firstly, know thyself. This means that you have to closely examine the nature of your business. Questions like what kind of business are you engaged in; what kind of products or services do you sell; who are your target customers; and so on must be answered with certainty. For example, you are engaged in selling cosmetic products specially made for teens.

So the nature of your business is selling cosmetic products; your products are cosmetics; and your target customers are female teenagers. With these facts in hand, you now know what kind of background music to add that will appeal to their senses. Of course, teens love modern music. Even if you love songs from the 60’s, 70’s or 80’s, you should not add them because surely most teens don’t like them. Also, since your target market are not just teens in general but are females, then carefully choose the background music that most female teens love. You can do this by conducting research.

Know what songs make it to the top of the chart. You may also visit forum sites exclusively for teens and find what’s in and what’s not. Secondly, always see to it that the file size of the songs you add is not too big. This will make the loading of pages slow and difficult. Because as pointed out earlier, people hate to wait. Thirdly, be sure that the music you’re using is free-one that you can use without having to worry for law suits because of copyright infringement. Law suits are costly both on your pocket and on your time.

Lastly, don’t also forget to update your background music from time to time because everything changes. What is hot today may no longer be hot tomorrow. It is also nice for frequent website visitors to hear something new. With these things in mind, adding background music to your website will indeed be cool and appealing to your visitors. It will make them coming back to you and eventually buy what you’re selling. It will also give a personal touch to your web site which will set it apart from your competitors.

The author of this article Menno Spijkstra is an underground Internet Marketer who has been successful selling products online for many years. Menno is now coaching people how to make real money online through his program http://www.IMachiever.com. This course includes a detailed manual plus 5 products to sell and keep 100% of the profit.

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Background Music For Your Website

Background Music For Your Website

A growing trend in the wondrous world of today’s internet is the addition of a background music track to a websites home page. With the ever-increasing popularity and safety of online shopping, website owners are utilizing the effects that music can bring to a website. The result is, having one more tool working toward winning that conversion rate battle; that being turning visitors into buyers.

Smart website owners spend countless hours optimizing their sites for the search engines, linking, book marking and article marketing, in order to be successful. Driving traffic to a website is an ongoing reality of an internet business. Therefore using all the resources available to keep visitors on the site is essential. Background music is one of those tools.

One of the most important analytic statistics in evaluating how a website is performing is called the “Bounce Rate”, the percentage of visitors who click away from a site without visiting any of the site’s other pages. In short, the longer a visitor spends on a website the greater chance there is for a sale. So it is very important that the design, text, and functionality of a website be attractive and user-friendly.

I recently had the pleasure of meeting Bob white, a senior account executive with Townsquare Media radio group of Casper, Wyoming. When we began to discuss the subject of adding background music to a website, he gave me a wonderful analogy.

“It seems to me it would work in the same way that music does for a radio station. The music is only there to entertain listeners until the next commercial break, where the real business of radio exists; that of selling commercial time to advertisers. The music or talk shows hold people’s attention, in hopes that they will become customers of our advertisers. Obviously, the radio station format is important, being that the more listeners a station has the higher the rate they can charge for advertising spots. So, in short I can see how having music on a website would hold a visitor there longer in hopes they will become a buyer.”

Once you have decided to include background music on your website, the process is relatively easy. You will need to install a flash player on your Home Page, usually placed in the footer, where an MP3 music file can then be loaded. There are numerous types of flash players available online for free. Many of which have detailed instructions on how to install them. However, if you have used the services of a web design company, you may want to consider consulting them as to which player may be best.

When contemplating what music you want for your site, you may want to think about having music composed exclusively for “your” website. This way you are able to create the exact environment you want your visitors to experience. Also you are assured the background music on your site is the only place that particular piece of music I being used.

Music is a powerful and emotional form of expression, universally understood. The use of music in all its’ forms is a large part of today’s society. Advancements in technology through-out history has brought music form once only being able to be heard at live performances, to being enjoyed through tiny personal listening devices As the internet continues to grow and become an essential part of our world, It only makes good sense to enhance your online store front with music.

Adding background music to your website is one of the easiest ways to enhance your visitor’s experience. Check out CustomWebTunes.com to see how easy it is to implement on your website.

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Why Background Music Makes Every Project You Touch Phenomenal!

Why Background Music Makes Every Project You Touch Phenomenal!

So you’ve completed your project whether it be a a film, commercial, educational video, etc. Job well done! Not so fast, your project has background music right? If your answer is no, your missing out on the key element that will change it from mediocre to phenomenal!

Think of background music as the glue that hold it all together. It fits into all those little cracks and crevices and makes everything harmoniously work together. Without it your project runs the risk of falling apart. Nothing is worse than dead air, or that dreaded awkward silence. With the right music your project will be as smooth as silk.

Background music makes your project professional. Nothing shows everybody you truly know what your doing than going the extra mile and putting music in the background. This separates you from the pack and makes you stand out from everybody else.

Music brands you. Some products, commercials or videos we remember just because of the melody. Music hooks people in and leaves a lasting impression on peoples brains that they won’t forget.

It’s inexpensive, you could could buy a couple tracks online and slap them in there. Or if you don’t want to worry about royalty fees you can make it yourself. There’s software that helps you with this process and is really easy to use.

Music is also the universal language. Do you want to cross all barriers with your project? Do you want to market to people all around the globe? You need background music. this is the tool that will attract people of all ethnicity’s to you and your project.

Now I’m sure your project is good as it is, but that’s not good enough. You want everything you put your hands on to be phenomenal in every way. You need the background music to take it to the next level. Make it professional, brand it, and give it universal appeal inexpensively with background music. Make a lasting impression.

Mike Scott is a recognized columnist and producer with over 20 years involvement in background music. He specializes in enlightening people on the impact melodies have on your business. Visit his website and get your free handbook on how to brand yourself with music marketing.

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Background Music For MySpace

Background Music For MySpace

When one wants to personalize and customize their MySpace pages, one might consider enhancing the pages using background music for MySpace so that when one looks at the site, they are able to listen to it. One should be careful to follow the rules set for using it within the MySpace pages. The kind of songs played on MySpace is affected by the terms and conditions set.

One cannot upload any song that is illegally acquired like songs downloaded from illegal sites which do not have copyrights. One has to have the consent of the copyright holder. Sometimes one can buy it legally from online stores or sites like iTunes but they cannot be uploaded at MySpace.

One should avoid using uploaded music as background music for MySpace as their rights might be revoked. In this case, one might have legal music but it is only for listening purposes and not for other purposes. Use featured artist on MySpace to have an excellent background on the profile.

On MySpace, you will be able to select what kind of verses you prefer and also choose from the gifted artists of your choice. There are few hits that are most likely to interest you at MySpace and you will be able to upload them. You have a wide variety from the many genres and the variety of songs to make a great profile for your background music for MySpace. Someone visiting your page will have something to listen to. This will make your profile interesting.

Peter Gitundu Researches And Reports On Myspace. For More Information on Background Music For Myspace, Visit His Site at BACKGROUND MUSIC FOR MYSPACE [http://www.merpetsales.com/myspace/index.php]. You Can Also Post Your Views About Background Music For Myspace On My Blog Here BACKGROUND MUSIC FOR MYSPACE [http://merpetsales.com/2008/03/11/how-to-harness-the-rich-diversity-of-background-music-for-myspace].

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